Symptoms of allergic are well known to 20-25% of the population of our society. A specific variant of allergies is atopic dermatitis.
What is atopic dermatitis and how it manifested?
Atopy is the term genetically defensive reaction of the body, which occurs in contact even with minimal doses of antigens. The immune system of the person affected by atopic disease reacts to substances that in the rest of the people do not cause adverse symptoms.
Widely considered to atopy as a disease of civilization, because at the beginning of the twentieth century. To have it less than 1% of the world population. Nowadays, less one hundred years later, in some parts of the world nearly 1/3 of humanity suffers described ailment.
Atopic dermatitis, as the name suggests, is an inflammatory disease of the skin of an atopic. It is a chronic disease and its symptoms are relapsing. The main symptom is a severe itching of the skin, which does not correspond to the severity of the nature of the stimulus causing it.
No consensus concerning the mechanism of formation of that pruritus is known, however, that it is formed as a result of allergic reactions. Besides persistent itching of the major symptoms of atopic dermatitis should be distinguished changes occurring in the structure and physiology of the skin, as well as the improper functioning of the immune system in contact with certain stimuli.
The increase in the incidence of atopic dermatitis
The world observes a systematic increase in the incidence of atopic dermatitis, particularly in well-developed countries, where industry plays an important role in the national economy.
It was found that AD more often affects the white race (so called. caucasian) than the other, and about 50% of cases of the disease recorded in the first half of the life of a human being. The disease in about three-quarters of cases reveals to the completion of the first year of life, and in the subsequent years its incidence drops significantly (between the ages of 6 to 20 years of age found only approx. 10% of new cases).
However, in rare cases the symptoms of atopic dermatitis can occur at any age - in a group of adolescents and adults twice as likely to succumb to this disease women. Clinical symptoms of the disease, the degree of their severity and the location of the changes arising from the skin resulting from a person's age, and moreover, they can spontaneously subside and appear alternately or permanently occur.
The symptoms and course of atopic dermatitis
During infancy, and so from birth to complete the second year of life, on the skin of a person suffering from atopic dermatitis, characteristic changes in the form of crusts, erosions, blisters and lumps. It is also noted dull color of hair, and the hair themselves are thin and break easily.
These lesions occur mostly on the scalp, cheeks, forehead and ear petals. If these changes are oozing may occur secondary infection - should therefore take special care about the sterility of the room where the child is, and properly take care of his hygiene.
More severe cases of atopic dermatitis also cause skin lesions on the trunk, limbs and buttocks. The disease, which appears in infancy increases the risk of other diseases of the atopic in the future (eg. asthma), but the symptoms of atopic dermatitis roughly half the children persist until the completion of the second year of life.
In older children, aged from 3 to 11 years old, oozing skin lesions occur more rarely, but often there are other of these deformations. This time lesions appear on the entire length of the hands and the hands and feet (including their inner side) around the wrists and ankles, as well as folds in the vicinity of the knee and elbow.
This arrangement skin changes due to an increased sweating these areas, as well as their mechanical irritation, produced by the motion. Thanks to the naturally occurring minor injuries and large sweating healing of skin lesions is very difficult, so often comes to bacterial infections and enlargement of the lymph nodes located near the occurrence of these changes, which obviously does not help the course of the disease.
In adolescents and adults the disease is characterized by the presence of alternating periods of exacerbation of symptoms and their spontaneous remission. On the skin are visible inflammatory infiltrates, bloody scabs, and, in severe cases resembling scales, gills, and the same skin is rough, dry and can take lightly browned color.
These lesions appear symmetrically, and most of them appear in the upper back and extremities of each (including the arms, hands and feet). It is worth noting that a strong itching is particularly annoying at night, thus significantly impedes on falling asleep and may imply insomnia, depression and general irritability.
As we can see on the basis of the above facts, atopic dermatitis is a disease that can have a variable course. Are inhomogeneous because its symptoms, and the period in which said symptoms are present. Therefore, it is necessary constant medical care, under which each patient should be constantly.