Blood tests - bilirubin
Bilirubin is a metabolic end product of heme, hemoglobin or non-protein part responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. It is a not needed, and the excess is dangerous to health. Therefore it should be expelled from the body.
Transformation to a soluble form called. or unbound conjugate taking place in the liver. Therefore, primarily a function of the organ depends on the concentration of bilirubin in the body.
It is a full pot of the substance, of which 80% is conjugated bilirubin, and the remaining unconjugated. Increasing the concentration of bilirubin in the early asymptomatic and exceeding standards than 2-3-fold causes jaundice.
Total bilirubin depends on the amount and rate of degradation of hemoglobin, from the liver, as well as biliary obstruction.
Bilirubin in the body means millimoles per liter (mmol / l) or milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL).
The correct total bilirubin
It should contain between 5.1 and 20.5 mmol / l, respectively, or between 0.3 and 1.2 mg / dL.
The causes of elevated total bilirubin is very much. In order to differentiate them, the concentration is conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.
Symptom elevated total bilirubin
It is the jaundice, manifested initially yellowing of the whites of the eyes and mucous membranes and skin. For practical reasons, hepatitis are divided into:
- before liver ;
- intrahepatic and
- extrahepatic .
Before hepatic jaundice is caused by an overproduction of bilirubin beyond the capability handle its metabolism by the liver. The situation as occurs for example in the case of hemolysis, that is, excessive destruction of red blood cells at the periphery.
Causes of jaundice intrahepatic constitute the largest group. There are a number of factors damaging the liver. Congenital diseases, such as Gilbert's syndrome by cirrhosis, toxic liver damage and viral, liver cancer until vascularization disorders.
The reasons for extrahepatic jaundice are a variety of factors preventing the natural flow of bile, which bilirubin is excreted. These include choledocholithiasis, all inflammatory conditions, and cancers of the pancreas or the biliary ducts.